报告题目: Overview of the Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods at Laval University: Examples of current researches on health effects of horticultural crops
报告人：Yves Desjardins, full professor at Laval University, Québec Canada
Yves Desjardins is full professor at the Plant Science department and he is affiliated with the Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods at Laval University, Québec Canada. He is the lead scientist of important projects and clinical studies to determine how polyphenols can positively modulate the gut microbiota and reduce low grade inflammation. He has been named the NSERC-Diana Food Chair on prebiotic effects of plant polyphenols. He published more than 120 papers in high rank journals and wrote 11 book chapters. He is member of the Board of the International Society of Horticultural Science and responsible for the publications of the Society (EJHS, Fruits, Acta Horticultura, Scripta Horticulturae. He is a co-editor of a new pomological treatise called “Principles of Modern Fruit Science” published by ISHS and Italian colleagues. He is conducting research on the characterization and extraction of polyphenols and particularly proanthocyanidins found in strawberry, blueberries and cranberries and their effects on cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and other chronic diseases.
During this talk he will first present the activities of INAF, the Institute of Nutrition and Functional Food at Laval University. He will then show evidence to demonstrate how berry polyphenols modulate gut microbiota and by way, improve cardiometabolic risks and energy metabolism. He will present a model to explain the role of tannins on a newly identified gut bacteria called Akkermansia muciniphila, also known as the anti-obesity bacteria. He will also present some the results of an multicentric clinical trial on the effect of blueberry-grape seeds extracts on cognitive decline in elderly people. Finally, Dr. Desjardins will briefly present and discuss his Research Chair program and particularly, the metabolomic and metagenomic of gut microbiota as affected by interindividual variability and capacity to metabolized polyphenols. He will also discuss the recreation of a Human Simplified Microbiota as a model of human gut and the metabolism of fruit polyphenols on the metagenomics of the microbiota and their metabolism and bioactivation. This synthetic biology approach bears great potential on the understanding of the impact of fruits constituents on the gut microbiota and by extension on the health properties.